REFERENCES

The health properties of Brown algae have been widely investigated over the past 35 years by scientists from France, Japan, the USA and Russia. Here are the list of only a small part of those scientific research, but they represent a strong proof of the unique properties of Brown algae.

  1. Cumashi A, Ushakova NA, et al., A comparative study of the antiinflammatory, anticoagulant, antiangiogenic, and antiadhesive activities of nine different fucoidans from brown seaweeds, Glycobiology. 2007; 17 (5): 541-552
  2. Maruyama H, Tamauchi H, Hashimoto M, et al. Suppression of Th2 immune responses by Mekabu fucoidan from Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2005; 137(4): 289-294
  3. Yang M, Ma C, Sun J, et al. Fucoidan stimulation induces a functional maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2008; 8(13-14): 1754-1760
  4. Doh-Ura K, Kuge T, Uomoto M, et al. Prophylactic effect of dietary seaweed. Fucoidan against enteral prion infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51(6): 2274-2777
  5. Itoh H. Noda H, Amano H, Zhuang C, Mizuno T, Ito H, Antitumor activity and immunological properties of marine algal polysaccharides, especially fucoidan, prepared from Sargassum thunbergii of Phaeophyceae. Anticancer Res. 1993; 13(6A): 2045-2052
  6. Zhuang C. et al., Antitumor active fucoidan from the brown seaweed, umitoranoo (Sargassum thunbergii). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 1995; 59(4): 563-567
  7. Zaporozhets TS, Besednova NN, Loenko IuN., Antibacterial and immunomodulating activity of fucoidan. Anitbiot Khimoioter. 1995; 40(2): 9-13
  8. Baba M, Nakajima M, Schols D, Pauwels R, Balzarini J, De Clercq E., Pentosan polysulfate, a sulfated oligosaccharide, is a potent and selective anti-HIV agent in vitro. Antiviral Res. 1988; 9(6): 335-343
  9. Feldman SC, Reynaldi S, Stortz CA, Cerezo AS, Damonte EB., Anitviral properties of fucoidan fractions from Leathesia difformis. Phytomedicine. 1999; 6(5): 335-340
  10. Logeart D. et al. Fucans, sulfated polysaccharides extracted from brown seaweeds, inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation I. Comparison with heparin for antiproliferation activity, binding and internalization. Eur J Cell Biol. 1997; 74(4): 376-384
  11. Patel MK, Mulloy B, Gallagher KL, et al. The antimitogenic action of the sulfated polysaccharides: fucoidan differs from heparin in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Thromb Haemostasis. 2002; 87(1): 149-154
  12. McCaffrey TA, Falcone DJ, Borth W, Brayton CF, Weksler BB., Fucoidan is a non-anticoagulant inhibitor of intimal hyperplasia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992; 184(2): 773-781
  13. Soeda S, Sakaguchi S, Shimeno H, Nagamatsu A., Fibrinolytic and anticoagulant activities of highly sulfated fucoidan, Biochem Pharmacol. 1992; 43(8): 1853-1858
  14. Colliec S, Fischer AM, Tapon-Bretaudiere J, Boisson C, Durrand P, Jozefonvicz J., Anticoagulant properties of a fucoidan fraction. Thromb Res. 1991; 64(2): 143-154
  15. Dittrich S, Lippek F, Gratopp A, Grosse-Siestrup C, Lange PE, Buhrer C., Intravascular granulocyte aggregates caused by the selectin-binding carbohydrate fucoidan in pig kidneys, Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2002; 29 (10): 909-914
  16. Ruperez P. Ahrazern O. Leal JA, Potential Antioxidant Capacity of Sulfated Polysasccharides From the Edible Brown Seaweed Fucus vesiculosus, J Agric Food Chem. 2002; 50(4): 840-845
  17. Luo D, Zhang Q et al., Fucoidan protects against dopaminergic neuron death in vivo and in vitro. Key laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases of the Ministry of Education, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, PR China
  18. Treatment of human skin with an extract of Fucus vesiculosus changes its thickness and mechanical properties. - Fujimura T, Tsukahara K, Moriwaki S, Kitahara T, Sano T, Takema Y., Biological Science Laboratories, Kao Corporation, 2606 Akabane, Ichikai-machi, Haga-gun, Tochigi 321-3497, Japan.
  19. Bartlett MR, Warren HS, Cowden WB Parish CR. Effects of the anti-inflammatory compounds castanospermine, mannose-6-phosphate and fucoidan on allograft rejection and elicited peritoneal exudates. Immunol Cell Biol. 1994; 72(5): 367-374
  20. Choi EM, Kim AJ, Kim YO, Hwang JK. Immunomodulating activity of arabinogalactan and fucoidan in vitro.. J Med Food. 2005; 8(4): 446-453
  21. Senni K, Gueniche et al., Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide from brown algae, is a potent modulator of connective tissue proteolysis, Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006; 445(1): 56-64
  22. Ronan, O.; Mark, R.; John, W.E. Fucoidan modulates the effect of transforming growth factor TGF)-β1 on fibroblast proliferation and wound repopulation in in vitro models of dermal wound repair. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2004;, 27: 266-270
  23. Sezer, A.D.; Hatipoglu, F.; Cevher, E.; Ogurtan, Z.; Bas, A.L.; Akbuga, J. Chitosan film containing fucoidan as a wound dressing for dermal burn healing: preparation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech
  24. Bo Li, Fei Lu, Xinjun Wei and Ruiziang Zhao, “Fucoidan: Structure and Bioactivity”, Molecules 2008, 13, 1671-1695
  25. Del Bigio MR, Yan HJ, Campbell TM. Effect of fucoidan treatment of collagenase-induced intracerebral hemorrhage in rats. Neurol Res. 1999; 21(4):415-419
  26. Matsumoto S. Fucoidan derived from Cladosiphon okamuranus Tokida ameliorates murine chronic colitis through the down-regulation of interleukin-6 production on colonic epithelial cells. Clin. Exp. Immunol, 2004; 136 (3): 431-439
  27. Ruperez P. Ahrazem O. Leal JA , Potential Antioxidant Capacity of Sulfated Polysasccharides From the Edible Brown Seaweed Fucus Vesiculosus, J Agric Food Chem. 2002; 50(4):840-845
  28. Frenette PS, Weiss L., Sulfated Glycans Induce Rapid Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells Mobilization: Evidence for Selectin-dependent and Independent Mechanisms. Blood, 2000; 96(7): 2460-2468
  29. Irhimeh MR et al., Fucoidan ingestion increases the expression of CXCR4 on human CD34+ cells, Exp Hematol, 2007; 35(6): 989-994
  30. Mavier et al., Expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1 and of its receptor CXCR4 in liver regeneration from oval cells in rat, Am J Pathol. 2004; 165(6):1969-1977
  31. Khotimchenko Y.S., Kovalev V.V., Savchenko O.V., Ziganshina O.A. Physicochemical properties, physiological effects and applications of alginates - polysaccharides from brown algae. Russian Journal of Marine Biology. 2001; 27(3): 151-162
  32. “Polyphenols from seaweeds, their bioactivites and potential roles in human health.” Gordon J. McDougall, Plant Products and Food Quality, Scottish Crop Research Institute
  33. Anti-tumor activity and immune response of fucoidan.
    Maruyama H, Tamauchi H, Hashimoto M, Nakano T. In Vivo. 2003 May-Jun;17(3):245-9. PMID:12929574
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12929574
  34. Preventive effects of fucoidan against Helicobacter pylori infection.
    Shibata H, Iimuro M, Uchiya N, Kawamori T, Nagaoka M, Ueyama S, Hashimoto S, Yokokura T, Sugimura T, Wakabayashi K. Helicobacter. 2003 Feb;8(1):59-65. PMID:12603617
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12603617
  35. Fucoidan expresses anti-tumor properties.
    Koyanagi S, Tanigawa N, Nakagawa H, Soeda S, Shimeno H. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003 Jan 15;65(2):173-9. PMID:12504793
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12504793
  36. Fucoidan studied in breast cancer.
    Liu JM, Haroun-Bouhedja F, Boisson-Vidal C. Anticancer Res. 2000 Sep-Oct;2000(5A):3265-71. PMID:11062752
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11062752
  37. Anti-tumor and anti-proliferative effects of a fucoidans.
    Riou D, Colliec-Jouault S, Pinczon du Sel D, Bosch S, Siavoshian S, Le Bert V, Tomasoni C, Sinquin C, Durand P, Roussakis C. Anticancer Res. 1996 May-Jun;16(3A):1213-8. PMID:8702239 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8702239
  38. Fucoidan inhibits lung metastasis. 
    Itoh H, Noda H, Amano H, Ito H. Anticancer Res. 1995 Sep- Oct;15(5B):1937-47. PMID:8572581
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8572581
  39. Fucoidan inhibits lung carcinoma.
    Soeda S, Ishida S, Shimeno H, Nagamatsu A. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1994 Nov;85(11):1144-50. PMID:7829400http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7829400
  40. Anti-tumor activity of fucoidan.
    Itoh H, Noda H, Amano H, Zhuaug C, Mizuno T, Ito H. Anticancer Res. 1993 Nov-Dec;13(6A):2045-52. PMID:8297113
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8297113
  41. Anti-tumor effect of seaweeds.
    Yamamoto I, Takahashi M, Suzuki T, Seino H, Mori H. Jpn J Exp Med. 1984 Aug;54(4):143-51. PMID:6513098
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6513098
  42. Effects of fucoidan on chronic renal failure in rats.
    Zhang Q, Li Z, Xu Z, Niu X, Zhang H. Planta Med. 2003 Jun;69(6):537-41. PMID:12865973
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12865973
  43. Fucoidans from Laminaria inhibits the human T cell lymphotropic virus.
    Romanos MT, Andrada-Serpa MJ, Mourao PA, Yoneshigue- Valentin Y, Costa SS, Pereira MS, Miranda MM, Goncalves JL, Wigg MD. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2002 Jul;13(4):219-21. PMID:12495209
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12495209
  44. Fucoidan may benefit diabetics.
    Tamura Y, Adachi H, Osuga J, Ohashi K, Yahagi N, Sekiya M, Okazaki H, Tomita S, Iizuka Y, Shimano H, Nagai R, Kimura S, Tsujimoto M, Ishibashi S. J Biol Chem. 2003 Apr 11;278(15):12613- 7. Epub 2002 Dec 06. MID:12473645
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12473645
  45. Alginate for chronic wounds.
    Ziegler UE, Schmidt K, Keller HP, Thiede A. Fortschr Med Orig. 2003;121(1):19-26. German. PMID:15117065
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15117065
  46. Alginates bind heavy metals.
    Davis TA, Llanes F, Volesky B, Diaz-Pulido G, McCook L, Mucci A. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2003 Aug;110(2):75-90. PMID:14515023
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14515023
  47. Alginates bind heavy metals.
    Pandey AK, Pandey SD, Misra V, Devi S. J Hazard Mater. 2003 Mar 17;98(1-3):177-81. PMID:12628785
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12628785
  48. Properties of fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus tokida in gastric mucosal protection. 
    Shibata H, Kimura-Takagi I, Nagaoka M, Hashimoto S, Aiyama R, Iha M, Ueyama S, Yokokura T. Biofactors. 2000;11(4):23545. 
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11270504